[13] Introduced to Europe and Australasia, it has never thrived in the UK; Elwes & Henry knew of not one good specimen,[7] and the last tree planted at Kew attained a height of only 12 m (39 ft) in 60 years. For Meehan's misnamed Ulmus fulva pendula (1889) see Ulmus americana 'Beebe's Weeping'; for Späth's misnamed Ulmus fulva (Michx.) Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture. Quite similar to the more common American Elm (Ulmus americana), the two are quite difficult to tell apart. VT; absent from much of in length), and its large samaras (½-¾" across), which have hairy seed bodies and hairless winged membranes. The tree grows in rich, well-drained soils of bottomlands and slopes. All rights reserved. The mucilaginous inner bark of the tree is edible[29] has long been used as a demulcent, and is still produced commercially for this purpose in the United States with approval for sale as an over-the-counter demulcent by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Weight is about 1.5 grams. Also covers those considered historical (not seen "Red Elm" redirects here. Exact status definitions can vary from state to Its heartwood is reddish-brown, giving the tree its alternative common name 'red elm'. [18][19] The US National Champion, measuring 7.16 m in circumference and 27.4 m tall, with an average crown spread of 25.18 m wide, grows in Louisville, Kentucky. Slippery elm, or red elm, Large-leaved elm (Ulmus rubra or U. fulva) of eastern North America that has hard wood and fragrant inner bark. It will come with a sticker label identifying what type is in the bottle. and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.)", "Registration of cultivar names in Ulmus", "Updated checklist of elm (Ulmus) cultivars for use in North America", Dr. Duke's Databases: List of Chemicals in, Elm species, varieties, hybrids, hybrid cultivars and species cultivars, A. Ross Central Park = Central Park Splendor, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ulmus_rubra&oldid=995280947, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Taxa named by Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 04:36. 6. [32] The wood is also used for the hubs of wagon wheels, as it is very shock resistant owing to the interlocking grain. A denizen of moist, rich habitats such as floodplains (and occasionally limestone uplands), slippery elm gets its common name from the mucilaginous substance produced by its inner bark. Bottle with cork. U. americana does not. FAC). Small, inconspicuous flowers in spring. Major species. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 40 m (131 ft) high. Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra)is a species of elm tree that has been used as an herbal remedy in North America for hundreds of years. The elm cultivar Ulmus 'Rubra' was reputedly cloned from a tree found by Vilmorin in a wood near Verrières-le-Buisson in the 1830s. Frontier Herbs (Norway, Iowa) alone sells 11,000 lb yearly. [12][unreliable source? Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Broadleaf Evergreen Semi-evergreen Leaf Color: Green Leaf Type: Simple Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Shape: Oblong Obovate Leaf Margin: Doubly Serrate Serrate Hairs Present: No Leaf Length: 3-6 inches Leaf Width: 1-3 inches Leaf Description: ], Red elm bark browsed by horses, Marshall, Illinois, The species has seldom been planted for ornament in its native country. Ulmus rubra, the slippery elm, is a species of elm native to eastern North America, ranging from southeast North Dakota, east to Maine and southern Quebec, south to northernmost Florida, and west to eastern Texas, where it thrives in moist uplands, although it will also grow in dry, intermediate soils. Family: Ulmaceae (Elm family) Geographic Region: U. rubra is found from North Dakota to Texas and over to the Atlantic Ocean. [34], The tree's fibrous inner bark produces a strong and durable fiber that can be spun into thread, twine, or rope[33] useful for bowstrings, ropes, jewellery, clothing, snowshoe bindings, woven mats, and even some musical instruments. 97 ($7.49/Fl Oz) RI, The species is chiefly distinguished from American elm by its downy twigs, chestnut brown or reddish hairy buds, and slimy red inner bark. to exist in the county by For the community in the United States, see. Common Name: Slippery Elm; Gray Elm, Moose Elm, Red Elm, Soft Elm. Elwes and Henry (1913) and Bean (1936) listed it as Ulmus montana [:U. The species is chiefly distinguished from American elm by its downy twigs, chestnut brown or reddish hairy buds, and slimy red inner bark. Leaves are dark green in summer, changing to yellow in fall. The specific epithet rubra (red) alludes to the tree's reddish wood, whilst the common name "slippery elm" alludes to the mucilaginous inner bark. The yoke of the Liberty Bell, a symbol of the independence of the United States, was made from slippery elm. [4] Ulmus rubra Muhl.. Slippery Elm. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy. (Wetland indicator code: U. rubra has contrasting light and dark layers when viewed in cross-section, that of [15] Several mature trees survive in Brighton (see Accessions). It's very tenacious and can grow almost anywhere. Take a photo and Ulmus rubra, commonly called slippery elm, is a medium sized, coarse-textured, somewhat weedy, deciduous tree that typically grows to 40-60’ (less frequently to 100’) tall with a vase-shaped to broad-rounded crown. It was listed in the 1869 Catalogue of Simon-Louis, Metz, France, as Ulmus campestris rubra, and by Planchon in de Candolle's Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1873) as Ulmus libero-rubra: 'Orme à liber rouge' [:elm with red inner bark]. Also covers Ulmus fulva Michx. The broad oblong to obovate leavesare 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, rough above but velvety below, with coarse double-serrate margins, … Floodplain (river or stream floodplains), forests, talus and rocky slopes, Occurs in wetlands or non-wetlands. slippery elm Ulmaceae Ulmus rubra Muhl. Ulmus rubra The rough twigs, and leaves that are very rough on both sides help to distinguish this tree. In Germany, the tree formed part of a complex hybrid raised by the Eisele nursery in Darmstadt, provisionally named 'Eisele H1'; patent pending (2020). Ulmus rubra is sometimes confused with 
 CT, MA, ME, Discover thousands of New England plants. The upper leaf surface is dark green and rough, the lower surface is lighter in color and rough, and the veins run directly to the teeth. Slippery elm is not widely planted because it is less statuesque than American elm and is susceptible to Dutch elm disease. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. The tree was propagated and marketed in the UK by the Hillier & Sons nursery, Winchester, Hampshire, from 1945, with 20 sold in the period 1970 to 1976, when production ceased.[16][17]. Buds are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long with 8 to 10 purplish colored bud scales covered with copper-colored hairs. In the central United States, native U. rubra hybridizes in the wild with the Siberian elm (U. pumila),[23][24] which was introduced in the early 20th century and has spread widely since, prompting conservation concerns for the genetic integrity of the former species. Discussion. var. Buds of U. americana are lighter colored and glabrous, or if there are hairs they are pale colored and mostly restricted to the scale margins. It is distinguished by its downy twigs, red-hairy buds (particularly noticable in winter) and slimy red inner bark ( rubra meaning red). Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), identified by its "slippery" inner bark, is commonly a medium-sized tree of moderately fast growth that may live to be 200 years old. (intentionally or It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. The slippery mucilage exuded by the inner bark of this elm is soothing for sore throats and other imflammation when chewed or brewed into a tea. state. 4ml glass bottle size: Diameter - 7/8" or 22 mm. in the state by its rough-textured leaves, the forked lateral veins on its leaves, its hairy young twigs, its short pedicels (1/8" or 3 mm. Though now outmoded, slippery elm tablets were chewed by spitball pitchers to enhance the effectiveness of the saliva applied to make the pitched baseball curve. A morphological analysis of a hybrid swarm of native Ulmus rubra and introduced U. pumila (Ulmaceae) in southern Nebraska. Its heartwood is reddish-brown, giving the tree its alternative common name 'red elm'. Winter buds covered by brown, silky hairs. • However, don't automatically rule … Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) Slippery Elm is a fairly common medium-large tree, named for its mucilaginous inner bark. Ulmaceae -- Elm family. Ulmus parvifolia, commonly called Chinese elm or lacebark elm, is a medium-sized deciduous tree that typically grows to 40-50’ (less frequently to 70’) tall with a rounded crown and long pendulous branching.It is native to China, Korea and Japan. libro-rubro, the former stating that the tre… Scabrous-leaved Ulmus rubra is often confused with U. americana.Where ranges coincide, U. rubra may freely intergrade with Ulmus pumila Linnaeus, a widely introduced species. The American elm (Ulmus americana), of eastern North America, may grow 24 to 30 metres (about 80 to 100 feet) tall.It has dark gray, ridged bark and elliptical leaves. symbol: ULRU. Your help is appreciated. For details, please check with your state. Look for small hairs (cilia) along the edges of the leaves. The timber is not of much importance commercially, and is not found anywhere in great quantity. The hybrid U. rubra × U. pumila cultivar 'Lincoln' is occasionally listed as Ulmus rubra 'Lincoln' in error. Ulmus rubra 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T61967382A61967384.en, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), 'L'Orme Rouge ou l'Indian Elm de la rue Cedar Crescent', "Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) Slippery elm prepared as a poultice coats and protects irritated tissues such as skin or intestinal membranes. The tree was first named as part of Ulmus americana in 1753,[5] but identified as a separate species, Ulmus rubra, in 1793 by Pennsylvania botanist Gotthilf Muhlenberg. There are no known cultivars. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are yellowish. A gluelike substance in the inner bark has long been steeped in water as a remedy for throat ailments, powdered for use in poultices, and chewed as a … The tree is known for its dark brown to … The slightly later name U. fulva, published by French botanist André Michaux in 1803,[6] is still widely used in dietary-supplement and alternative-medicine information. [5], Ulmus rubra is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a spreading head of branches,[8] commonly growing to 12–19 m (39–62 ft), very occasionally > 30 m (98 ft) in height. [citation needed]. the Wentworth Elm). The outer bark is a useful character to separate these two species. Slippery elm, or Ulmus rubra, is a tree native to the central and eastern United States and Ontario, Canada. [25], U. rubra had limited success as a hybrid parent in the 1960s, resulting in the cultivars 'Coolshade', 'Fremont', 'Improved Coolshade', 'Lincoln', 'Rosehill', and probably 'Willis'. Note: when native and non-native Flower: Species is monoecious; small, light green, in tight clusters of 3 to 5, appearing in early spring before … those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). The broad oblong to obovate leaves are 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, rough above but velvety below, with coarse double-serrate margins, acuminate apices and oblique bases; the petioles are 6–12 mm (1⁄4–15⁄32 in) long. Simple, alternate on stem, 4" to 6" in length; ovate, sharp pointed, base not symmetrical, double toothed on edges; thick, dark green, and rough on both sides; turns yellow in autumn. Muhl. Noteworthy Characteristics. All Characteristics, the bark of an adult plant is ridged or plated, the bark of an adult plant peels off easily or hangs off, the winter buds are conical (cone-shaped), The base of the leaf blade is cordate (heart-shaped, with rounded lobes), the base of the leaf blade is truncate (ends abruptly in a more or less straight line as though cut off), the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is oblong (rectangular but with rounded ends), the leaf blade is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade), the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is chartaceous (thin and dry like paper), the leaf blade is herbaceous (has a leafy texture), the plant does not have much of an odor, or it has an unpleasant or repellant odor. unintentionally); has become naturalized. The outer bark of leaf blade with usually 2 or more lateral veins forking well before reaching margin and wing of fruit lacking marginal cilia and hairy over the body of seed (vs. U. americana, with leaf blade with usually no (infrequently with 1) lateral veins forking well before reaching margin and wing of fruit with marginal cilia and lacking hairs over body of seed). in part by the National Science Foundation. [28]. (2013). a sighting. A tree in Westmount, Quebec, Canada, measured 4.27 m in girth in 2011. [9] Specimens supplied by the Späth nursery to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 1902 as U. fulva may survive in Edinburgh as it was the practice of the Garden to distribute trees about the city (viz. [9] The leaves are often red tinged on emergence, turning dark green by summer, and then a dull yellow in the fall. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within County documented: documented American Forests - National Register of Champion Trees. In nature, it can be found in wooded areas with moist to fairly dry calcareous soils and in cove forests in the low mountains containing soils rich in organic matter, and drier upland soils. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. Rich, deciduous and riparian forests, rocky slopes. (2017) p 296; 372 Parts Shown: Leaf, Fruit, Habit Art Wildflower: North America's Magazine of Wild Flora. There is no difference in the mucilage of the twigs or leaves, as far as I … To reuse an [10] The perfect, apetalous, wind-pollinated flowers are produced before the leaves in early spring, usually in tight, short-stalked, clusters of 10–20. Ulmus rubra has various traditional medicinal uses. The species epithet (rubra) may derive from the fact that its winter buds are red. It is in flower from March to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. (2000) p 35 Parts Shown: Leaf Photo [20][21] Another tall specimen grows in the Bronx, New York City, at 710 West 246th Street, measuring 31 m (102 ft) high in 2002. Slippery Elm Wood "Ulmus Rubra" - sawdust shaving flake turning leaf dust powder chip - 4ml clear glass bottle with cork - Collection, Display. Susan G. Wynn, in Veterinary Herbal Medicine, 2007. populations both exist in a county, only native status you. glabraHuds.] The powdered bark has been used in this manner for local application to treat gout, rheumatism, cold sores, wounds, abscesses, ulcers, and toothaches. N. slippery elm. This tree grows best and may reach 40 m (132 ft) on moist, rich soils of lower slopes and flood plains, although it may also grow on dry hillsides with limestone soils. [33] The wood, as 'red elm', is sometimes used to make bows for archery. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust It is noted for its excellent foliage, multi-colored bark, rapid growth and good resistance to Dutch elm disease. Ulmus rubra. in 20 years). Flower arrangement, shape, and size. Ulmus rubra, or Slippery Elm, is a long-lived elm tree that, while native to North Carolina, is rarely used in the landscape due to its rough texture and difficulty to find commercially. The reddish-brown fruit is an oval winged samara, orbicular to obovate, slightly notched at the top, 12–18 mm (15⁄32–23⁄32 in) long, the single, central seed coated with red-brown hairs, naked elsewhere. Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) has very rough leaf surfaces and seeds without hairs on the margin. the state. The species superficially resembles American elm (U. americana), but is more closely related to the European wych elm (U. glabra), which has a very similar flower structure, though lacks the pubescence over the seed. Mol Ecol Resour. [7] Macoun considered it more durable than that of the other elms,[31] and better suited for railway ties, fence-posts, and rails, while Pinchot recommended planting it in the Mississippi valley, as it grows fast in youth, and could be utilized for fence-posts when quite young, since the sapwood, if thoroughly dried, is quite as durable as the heartwood. Synonyms: Ulmus fulva. It occasionally appeared in early 20th-century US nursery catalogues. Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate to oblong, 4 to 6 inches long, 2 to 3 inches wide, margin coarsely and sharply doubly serrated, base conspicuously inequilateral; dark green above and very scabrous, paler and slightly scabrous or hairy beneath. Other common names include red elm, gray elm, soft elm, moose elm, and Indian elm. post Siberian Elm. Non-native: introduced (1890) see Ulmus americana 'Pendula'. U. americana when collected later in the growing season (i.e., when vegetative). State documented: documented Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions is shown on the map. 1. vol 16, no. The common name of this tree is derived from its mucilaginous inner bark. All images and text © It can be distinguished from other elms (Ulmus spp.) [26] In later years, it was also used in the Wisconsin elm breeding program to produce 'Repura' and 'Revera' [27] although neither is known to have been released to commerce. We depend on [30] Sometimes leaves are dried and ground into a powder, then made into a tea. Simple, alternate leaves are 4 to 6 inches long with a toothed margin and unequal leaf base. Ulmus rubra is similar to Ulmus americana.The best character to separate them is the appearance of the winter buds.The buds of Ulmus rubra are darker in color and usually have some rusty brown pubescence on the face of the scales. NH, Found this plant? pendula Hort. slippery elm, Ulmus rubra, red elm - North American elm having rough leaves that are red when opening; yields a hard wood guernsey elm, Jersey elm, Ulmus campestris sarniensis, Ulmus campestris wheatleyi, Ulmus sarniensis, wheately elm - a variety of the English elm with erect branches and broader leaves The Go Botany project is supported Ulmus glabra: leaf blades without marginal cilia, winter bud scales red-brown to brown or dark brown, with white or pale cilia near the margins, and samara pubescent on only the central vein of wing (vs. U. rubra, with leaf blades with marginal cilia, winter bud scales red, pubescent with red tomentum near the margins, and samara pubescent on only the body). Elowsky, C. G., Jordon-Thaden, I. E., & Kaul, R. B. Although Slippery Elm has not been scientifically investigated, the FDA has approved it as a safe demulcent substance. Populations in the United States have been decimated by Dutch elm disease. Slippery Elm B120 Alcohol-Free Herbal Extract Tincture, Super-Concentrated Responsibly farmed Organic Slippery Elm (Ulmus Rubra) 4 fl oz 4.0 out of 5 stars 1 $29.97 $ 29 . Are ovoid and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy hardy to zone UK! Its dark brown to … Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red (... But not documented to exist in the bottle, RI, VT ; absent from much of ME Several trees... Images and text © 2020 native Plant Trust Discover thousands of New England plants tree found by in. Dark brown to … Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm ( rubra. As 'red elm ' bark of U. rubra × U. pumila cultivar 'Lincoln ' in error Ontario, Canada measured! Elm, Soft elm name of this tree its alternative common name 'red elm ' ) 15. 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B ) it... Americana when collected later in the state 22 ] in the United States, see I.... Much of ME the county by evidence ( herbarium specimen, photograph ), ME NH!