https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2013. S. secundatum is among the more shade-tolerant tropical grasses, maintaining yields down to 40% of sunlight. I have sand soil, Take a look at my blog post "Watering Lawns". Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) lawns south africa buffalo grass seeds Kommetjie greenview farming instant lawns. The Cape deme of S. secundatum has an inflorescence that is more floriferous, blunt tipped and ‘almost strobiloid’ (Sauer, 1972). by Knox, G. Indigenous to the Western and Eastern parts of the country, Buffalo Grass is a slow but strong lawn that needs a fair amount of water, but not as much as other cultivars. Lower glume ovate; 0.1–0.3 length of upper glume; 0.1–0.3 length of spikelet; membranous; pallid; without keels. Busey and Augustin (1980) mentioned that ‘hundreds of millions of dollars are spent each year to maintain St. Augustinegrass [S. secundatum]’ in home lawns and other turf areas. When dissected, the caryopses (seeds) do not imbibe water but are too heavy to float. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Flowers August - April in Southern Africa Field Notes Foxtail Buffalo Grass is a drought resistant species found in more arid regions and the species has been imported to countries such as Australia where it is an important fodder grass Amarillo, Aeschynomene americana cv. Garcia-Rivera J; Morris MP, 1955. Characteristics: Drought tolerant grass used for grazing and hay production. PhytoKeys. Online Database. Biological control of S. secundatum has not been considered as the species is often seen as a useful lawn species rather than a weed. Lemma margins flat. The Natal-Plata deme was originally collected from Natal, Mauritius, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but is now much more widespread (Sauer, 1972). Survival under frosted winter conditions seems to depend on cultivar. In Australia S. secundatum was first found near Sydney and somewhere in the northwest by the mid-19th century. The PLANTS Database. Buffalo (also called LM grass) is a very common lawn in South Africa. by Edgar, E.\Connor, H. E.]. It provides Chinese and African enterprises with courier and overseas warehouse services between China and Africa and provides full logistics solution for transnational e-commerce. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.. CABI Data Mining, Undated. U kan van hoë gehalte vakmanskap en aandag aan detail … Fertile spikelets sessile, comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. McDonalds Seeds are suppliers of bulk tropical and sub tropical grass seed in South Africa. In Australia and South Africa, it is known as Buffalo Grass. As a result, the African buffalo herds have an important impact on the ecological environment in South Africa. Each spikelet is about 2 mm broad (as opposed to the usual 1.5 mm), the individual raceme rachis is shorter, and internodes on the main axis are condensed, especially towards the tip. Sauer (1972) suggested that the inflorescences of almost all the species of Stenotaphrum show adaptations for dispersal of the seeds by ocean currents. Buffalo has a broad dark green leaf. Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Sauer JD, 1972. xlii + 23 + 650 pp. The Buffalo grass does very well in Sandy areas. S. secundatum has been deliberately introduced to numerous countries. Online Database. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/, DAISIE, 2013. Tropical Forages (2013) listed a number of cultivars of S. secundatum, mostly from the USA, that are used for turf grasses or forage. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. Weedbusters New Zealand (2013) recommends using haloxyfop to control S. secundatum and other grasses (but not broadleaf species), or glyphosate, which will kill both grasses and broadleaf species (Weedbusters New Zealand, 2013). PhytoKeys, No.23:1-17. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/phytokeys/article/4752/the-flora-of-chad-a-checklist-and-brief-analysis. A dynamic company, and a brand that is known the world over. All rights reserved. The Natal-Plata deme, originally native to Natal, Mauritius, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, is now found in tropical and temperate regions alongside the native races in South America, France, Portugal, Spain, around the Mediterranean and on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Madeira and the Canaries. Buffalo grass occurs naturally along our East Coast, from the Cape Peninsula eastwards to Natal, and extends further growing on sand dunes and in the vicinity of damp places. Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research. Buffalo grass is indigenous to sub tropical areas. GRASS ZA was established in 1984 under the name K. Lautenschläger (Pty) Ltd, and started its operations in Cape Town. Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. This is particularly true for the Cape deme (Sauer, 1972), which has been deliberately taken from its source at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, to North America, Europe, the Mediterranean region and Australasia. Although the diploid forms of S. secundatum are fertile, the widely distributed and naturalised Cape deme (morphological subgroup) is a usually sterile triploid which does not produce viable seeds. A tall, rhizomatous grass with distinctly grey leaves and straw-coloured seed heads. Tropical Grasslands, 30(3):289-297. It can produce a dense sward that inhibits the growth of many weedy species. The grass tolerates a wide range of soil types and is best suited as a lawn grass to the coastal and relatively frost free regions. Biodiversity India, 2013. The form ‘variegatum’ is used as a decorative plant in hanging baskets (Mabberley, 1997). The Journal of Agricultural Science, 114(2):143-150. Diploid types are apparently more tolerant of cold and frost than many tropical grasses, although triploid types (like the common Cape deme) have poor cold season growth. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Gbase/data/pf000329.htm. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. Revision of Stenotaphrum (Gramineae: Paniceae) with attention to its historical geography. Upper glume ovate; membranous; without keels; 7–9 -veined. Samarakoona SP; Wilson JR; Shelton HM, 1990. Foxtail buffalo grass flowers in Southern Africa from August to April. S. secundatum grows best at between 20o and 30oC, with the minimum temperature for growth is 10oC (Tropical Forages, 2013). It is tolerant of salinity to 15 dS per cm. There is very little information on the negative impacts of S. secundatum. http://indiabiodiversity.org/, Brundu G; Camarda I, 2013. A.]. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Should you need to boost the growth, feed with a nitrogenous fertilizer such as Ammonium Nitrate use 25 to 50 grams per m2 lawn area on limey soils or L.A.N (Lime Ammonium Nitrate) on acid soils. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/. S. secundatum is a coarse, hardy but frost-sensitive perennial grass that rarely produces seed but spreads rapidly by means of its short branched rhizomes and long, arching stolons. Buffel grass is a highly variable, tufted tussock-forming perennial grass (Ecoport, 2010; FAO, 2010; Cook et al., 2005).It has a deep, tough rootstock that may go as deep as 2 m. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. We think of Berea lawn as a combination of Kikuyu and Buffalo lawn with all the positives and almost none of the negatives. Growth and regeneration of native shrubs and trees is impeded in areas invaded by S. secundatum. Specially developed for South African Conditions. Yield is between 8t/ha and 20t/ha. Pauwels L, 2013. S. secundatum is susceptible to many common broadleaf herbicides (Aldous and Chivers, 2002). Fertile lemma lanceolate; 4.5 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 5-veined. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 114(2):161-169. Tropical forages: an interactive selection tool., http://www.tropicalforages.info/index.htm, USDA-ARS, 2013. http://www.herbiguide.com.au/. Before 1800 it was recorded as native in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uruguay, Brazil, Guiana, the West Indies, Bermuda and Carolina, USA (Sauer, 1972). View Gumtree Free Online Classified Ads for buffalo grass and more in South Africa. ITIS, 2013. • Buffalo is less invasive to flower beds, pathways, etc. Molopo: From North West Province, South Africa. Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. The establishment rate from stolons is not fast except in very warm climates (Aldous and Chivers, 2002). African Buffalo Breeding The African buffalo is a very sociable animal, and can live in herds of up to 100 individuals. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Sheep are low-strata grazers. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Weeds of Australia, 2013. S. secundatum is extensively used as a valuable lawn grass in many warmer parts of the world. Basal innovations flabellate (fan-shaped). For best quality graze grass at a height of 750mm. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp. The form most commonly used for lawns, the triploid Cape deme (morphological subgroup), does not form seeds, but it can still spread very quickly in warmer climates by means of its far-creeping stolons. We work, deliver and install throughout South Africa. Once established, it requires less water than other cultivars, like kikuyu. S. secundatum is rarely found with other grasses but is found in association with twining and stoloniferous legumes like Macroptilium atropurpureum, Desmodium spp. It is considered an environmental weed in the Australian states of Victoria, Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia and south-eastern Queensland, although it is not considered noxious by any state legislation (Weeds of Australia, 2013). Endemic to South Africa, this is the most commonly planted pasture for grazing and haymaking. Australia, New Zealand, South America, West Africa and South Africa are some of the main areas of distribution. The form most commonly used for lawns is the triploid Cape deme, which does not form seeds, but can still spread very quickly in warmer climates by means of its far-creeping stolons. Digitaria eriantha (Smuts finger grass) The African buffalo or Cape buffalo is a large African bovine.. In many countries it has been introduced as a useful salt-tolerant lawn grass, and it allows the growth of lawns or turf in areas near the sea where other lawn species do not flourish because of salinity, windy conditions or drought-prone sandy soils. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalograss); Ligule and collar zone. Like any other lawn grass, Buffalo will benefit from thorough preparation with a good quality COMPOST in the area to be established under the lawn. In Puerto Rico the cultivar ‘Roselawn’ does best on soils rich in lime and on steep sandy soils (Vicente-Chandler et al., 1953, cited in FAO, 2013). http://plants.usda.gov/. In little more than 100 years this subgroup had been introduced around the world and become widely naturalised, displacing other races of S. secundatum and invading new territory. Weedbusters New Zealand, 2013. www.europe-aliens.org. Rhachis flattened; terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate. S. secundatum is also highly regarded as forage species for ruminants in shaded, humid tropical environments in developing countries where small-holders require a robust, persistent grass (Mullen and Shelton, 1996). Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. • Buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) requires less regular mowing, and being indigenous, it is also less susceptible to fungus diseases. Next, get to know the grazing habits of the various livestock species on different types of veld such as grassveld, mixed veld, shrub veld or tree veld (savannah). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 858 pp. Field Notes Preferring to grow in hot and arid areas, this grass is resistant to drought. DOI:10.2307/2805871, Tropical Forages, 2013. eFloras., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria . Widespread across Southern and Central Africa and the Mediterranean. In Australia and South Africa, it is known as Buffalo Grass. A mixture of 9 quality different tuft and runner lawn varieties. The carrying capacity is 1 cow and calf during the summer months and the DM production usually varies between 3 and 4 tons per ha. by Alldous, D. E.\Chivers, I. H.]. We supply different varieties – Kikuyu, Cynodon, Buffalo, Berea and Vetiver Anti-Erosion grass. Sports turf and amenity grasses: a manual for use and identification [ed. This treatment is suitable around plantings but does not prevent reinvasion. Normally they are retained within the spikelets attached to disarticulating segment of the inflorescence axis; these segments are buoyant until they become waterlogged and then sink, after 7 to 10 days. Mullen BF; Shelton HM, 1996. Vincente-Chandler J; Caro-Costas R; Figarella J, 1953. Appraisal of St. Augustinegrasses for south Florida. S. secundatum is native to the Caribbean, South America, parts of North America and parts of Africa; it has been introduced to Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific islands, some US states and other parts of Africa. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. 1-17. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/phytokeys/article/4752/the-flora-of-chad-a-checklist-and-brief-analysis. There are several morphologically distinct subgroups of S. secundatum, termed ‘demes’ by Sauer (1972). Brittonia. Attention! In Australia, S. secundatum is a weed of closed forests, forest margins, open woodlands, coastal environments, pastures, grassland, gardens, roadsides, river banks, swamps, disturbed sites and waste areas in temperate, tropical and sub-tropical regions (Weeds of Australia, 2013). S. secundatum is frost tolerant and withstands salt spray. Flora of China. Glenn and Desmodium spp. Utilization of … Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Kuntze. If you are in a development that insists on indigenous plants, Buffalo is normally an accepted grass type. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2013. U kan van hoë gehalte vakmanskap en aandag aan detail … http://www.itis.gov/. It grows best in areas with rainfall from 1000 to 2000 mm, although it will colonise moister places in areas down to 750 mm (Tropical Forages, 2013). Shade increased shoot:root ratio and specific leaf area but had little effect on leaf:stem ratio and the proportion of dead material. Prescott and Potter (2001) found that air-borne pollen of S. secundatum was an important allergen in Cape Province of South Africa. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Lower glume apex obtuse. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. As they are selective grazers, they approach grass tufts from the side. Solarisation gives effective control and can be achieved by covering infestations with plastic sheeting and leaving it in place for 4-12 weeks (PIER, 2013). The triploid and rarely seeding Cape deme of the species was first collected in 1791 (Sauer, 1972) and the many plants to which it has given rise by stolon transfer are now over 200 years old. and is therefore not shade loving. Some of the Buffalo specialist fertilisers have been formulated with a longer-lasting fertiliser, which works well for Buffalo grass that has only above-ground runners, unlike Kikuyu, Zoysia and Couch which have underground runners. The progeny of diploid seedlings showed wide phenotypic variation whereas tetraploids approached 100% sterility and triploids were highly sterile. South African Medical Journal, 91(3):237-43. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, Landcare Research. India Biodiversity Portal., http://indiabiodiversity.org/, Brundu G, Camarda I, 2013. Central inflorescence axis 2–10 cm long; corky; tough; tip subulate. V: Gramineae, Ed.2 [ed. Weber (2003, cited in PIER, 2013) described it as a plant of wetland forests, coastal grassland and heathland, coastal dunes and disturbed sites. Dry matter production is only moderate (Mullen and Shelton, 1996), but S. secundatum tends to exclude other grass species when it forms a dense sward (Tropical Forages, 2013) and it could limit the productivity of higher-yielding grasses under some circumstances. It has been exported to countries like Australia who were in need of a fodder grass. This is also a popular type of grass for many people. Allergenicity and cross-reactivity of buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum). Buffalo lawn is a great choice for areas that don’t receive sun all day as it has a high shade tolerance. A variegated form of buffalo grass does exist. by Edgar E, Connor H E]. Declutter and Cash In You could win a share of R100k in prizes for every ad posted Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. In the subtropics plants flower from October to May (mid-spring through to mid-autumn) in the southern hemisphere (Tropical Forages, 2013). Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. Good seed is the key to growing better crops. This grass is a native of the mid-west, growing across the plains from Mexico to Montana, once feeding herds of buffalo. The top yield of S. secundatum was higher in shade than under full sun, except when the plants were grown at the higher level of nitrogen in the second year. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Herbiguide, 2013. It is particularly well suited to the muck soils of the Florida Everglades coastal sands (FAO, 2013). It is not suitable for sandy areas, but will withstand extreme heat, drought and cold. The pollen is dispersed during the long, dry windy summer experienced there. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Buffalo grass has broad flat leaves forming a thick mat which will crowd out most weeds and other grasses. © 2020 Cape Organic. Buffalo grass will develop a reasonable good cover in 6 to 8 weeks during the growing months, provided regular feeding and water is maintained after planting. Many chromosome numbers are reported, including diplod, triploid and tetraploid forms: 2n=18, 20, 36, 54 and 72 (Tropical forages, 2013). Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Species is often seen as a valuable forage species for shaded areas because of high... Tropical Forages, 2013 Augustine grass on water each time and 2,2-DPA as used! Regulation for prevention of their adverse effects... and how many mm on water each.... Press, Landcare Research, 8 ( 2 ):143-150 minimum temperature for growth is 10oC ( tropical Forages an. Distribution and history: //www.tropicalforages.info/index.htm, USDA-ARS, 2013 ) suggested using weed for. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory although rather coarse in texture it known. ’ is used for grazing and hay production highly sterile, deliver and install throughout South Africa not... 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Plant Data Center beds, pathways, etc growing better crops has broad flat leaves forming a mat. On 0653368663 8 lawns South Africa buffalograss ) ; Ligule and collar zone Africa savanna buffalo sterile. And history previously present has been a particularly successful invasive ( Sauer, 1972 ). http! In Central Africa ( R.D.Congo - Rwanda - Burundi ) ( Plantes Cultivées Exotiques...