Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants : Threatened & Endangered: Wetland Indicator Status : 50,000+ Plant Images ... Cornus L. – dogwood Species: Cornus drummondii C.A. National strategy for special forest products. The dogwoods are distinguished from other flowering shrubs by the clusters of small, 4-petaled white flowers and opposite (except for 1 species) leaves that are toothless and have prominent, arching, lateral veins. U.S. Forest Service Protection Report R8-PR 23. 2001. In general, damage is most severe at elevations above 3,000 feet, where forest and ornamental dogwoods may be eliminated. Bugwood Wiki was created to be a resource for those needing information on Integrated Pest Management, Invasive Species and … Fungal disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) trees (Daughtrey et al. Redlin, S.C. 1991. Cooperative Extension Service. University of Georgia. The Plants Database includes the following 29 species of Cornus .Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Figures 5-6. It grows up to a height of 4 to 15 feet, and its subgenera are Swida. Of the 17 species of dogwood native to North America, the four most common garden types are native flowering dogwoods, Pacific dogwood, Cornelian cherry dogwood and kousa dogwoods. Forest Service Protection Report 26, p. 19. Like the Kousa, Cornelian Dogwoods form a canopy as they grow, making them great for shading and decoration, especially in the garden. USDA. 77:34-36. There is only one genus of dogwood in Canada — Cornus — but its species come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Ophiostoma ulmi. Dogwood fruits, rich in fat and protein, are a preferred food for turkeys, bobwhite quail, squirrels, rabbits, and deer, as well as numerous non-game species of birds. Dogwood - A Plant for all Seasons No matter where you live in Canada, chances are there is a dogwood for you. Figure 1. Daughtrey. Dogwood leaves also have a high calcium content and decompose rapidly. As of 1999, anthracnose had killed 49.7 percent of the native dogwood trees in 24 western counties of North Carolina (USFS 2001). Landscape, Nursery, and Urban Forestry Program. Plant Disease. Adapted for eXtension.org by Thomas DeGomez, University of Arizona. Engaging and empowering the public to help find, map, and prevent invasive species in America's wilderness areas, wild rivers, and other natural areas. Dogwood is a small broadleaf shrub, typically found growing along woodland edges and in hedgerows of southern England. 1994. Disease severity in the South seems to be more intense at higher elevations. In early autumn, it … Horticulture Diagnostic Laboratory. 1290. It grows to about 20 feet high with an 18-foot spread. Britton, M.T. At Dogwood we believe that everything is connected. The health of southern forests. The .gov means it’s official. A species profile for Dogwood Anthracnose. Windham. associated with anthracnose of dogwood in the Pacific Northwest. p. 31–35. Southern Region. Table 2 identifies those invasive species commonly used in gardens or landscaping, the corresponding alternative plant category, as well as some additional alternatives. Davidson, Jr. 1979. Researchers also speculate that climatic changes and droughts may have predisposed trees to infection, thus causing coincidental outbreaks in the Northeast and the Pacific Northwest (Anderson et al. Dogwood is a small shrub, widespread along the woodland edges and hedgerows of southern England. Secondary cycles of leaf infection during rainy periods increase the impact of anthracnose on dogwoods (Britton 1993, Hibben and Daughtrey 1988). Two years later, Pirone (1980) noticed a widespread and rapid deterioration of flowering dogwoods in New York and Connecticut (Fig. Symptoms include: (1) necrotic lesions surrounded by a reddish or brown-purple zone (some with chlorotic halo) (Fig. Flowering Cornus (dogwood) trees are grown for their showy coloured bracts in late spring and early summer. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. Effects of tree placement on dogwood anthracnose severity and lesion growth rates in urban landscapes and wooded areas. 1). This species is known as Cornus racemose. Britton, M.T. Knighten, M. Windham, K. Langdon, F. Hendrix, R. and Roncadori. 1995. 77: 34-37. Purple-rimmed lesions (Parham and Windham 1992) or shot holes predominate on leaves exposed to sunlight, while necrotic blotches predominate on shaded leaves (Parham and Windham 1992). Oregon State University. The species reproduces vegetatively by rooting along nodes and the lower stems ( EPPO, 2009b ). Visually appealing and magnets for wildlife, these plants are bound to please both the gardener and naturalist in you. Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. Dogwood Tree Types. The crimson colour of its leaves in autumn, and its strikingly red twigs, make it a popular ornamental plant, so it is frequently planted in parks and gardens. and R.M. 1996), Fungal disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) trees (Daughtrey et al. (ed.). During that period, the number of plots with severe epidemics (more than 25 percent of foliage blighted) increased by 638 percent. p. 42. February 24: 34-37. Red-osier dogwood is by far our most common native dogwood. References Cited Britton, K.O. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. Stem dieback from dogwood anthracnose (, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), Climate Change Impacts on Forest Diseases. Influence of site factors on dogwood anthracnose in the Nantahala Mountain range of western North Carolina. Hibben, K.O. Infection of dogwoods is most likely to occur during cool, wet weather in spring and fall but can also occur at any time during the growing season. Anderson, R.L., J.L. Trigiano, and M.T. 76:915-918. Plant Disease 80(4):349-358. Phytophthora alni. Montgomery, and K. Langdon. ... Bill was responsible for our invasive species strategy and deployment while I was at The Nature Conservancy. Invasive species is the bane of parks across the city, said Chris Frelke, the city’s director of Parks, Recreation and Community Facilities. nov., cause of dogwood anthracnose. In the Southern Appalachians, mortality is most likely at elevations above 3,000 feet. Amylostereum complex ... Dogwood Anthracnose Disease. Dogwood anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. Beyond this aesthetic loss, the absence of native dogwoods and their fruits is probably detrimental to wildlife. Dogwood anthracnose has been reported on over 12 million acres in 180 counties (Anderson et al. This species is less prone to becoming invasive than most species on this list. Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County. Pirone, P.P. Dogwood; Hebes; Lavender (good for butterflies) Mahonia; Currants (Rubus) Thyme; Viburnums; Are there any other shrubs I should avoid? Cornell University. Want create site? Defoliation of affected dogwoods is common in the Southern Appalachians (Britton 1993, Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). 4). In native habitats such as sedge meadows and fens in North America, C. sericea colonizes far from clones of shrub by seed, but also advances via spreading (B Middleton, National Wetlands Research Center, Louisiana, USA, … Discula destructiva is a fungus that has caused serious losses to North American native flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and other native and introduced species (C. nuttallii and C. kousa, respectively) of dogwood found in the natural environment and in ornamental plantings. ... 12 Species of Dogwood Trees and Shrubs 7 Species of Daisies for Your Flower Garden 18 Species of Holly Plants This plant has no children Legal Status. Clusters of glossy red fruit in fall persist into winter and are relished by birds. In the eastern United States, the disease has spread rapidly down the Appalachians, primarily on Cornus florida, the eastern flowering dogwood. In: Stipes, R.J. Dogwood anthracnose. Understory forest dogwoods are more prone to infection than trees growing in full sunlight. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia. Byther, R.S. Although the origin of dogwood anthracnose is unknown, the results of DNA analysis combined with its rapid spread have led many to conclude it was introduced (Daughtrey et al. Maps can be downloaded and shared. 1992). Anthracnose causes serious damage to two species of dogwood in natural habitats: eastern flowering dogwood (C. florida) and Pacific dogwood (C. nuttallii). Mey. 32:61-73. dikti / Getty Images Latin Name: Various species of Lantana can be invasive. Natural Resources Canada. Buddleia davidii is not the only shrub that has turned out to be invasive. The bark is grey and smooth with shallow ridges which develop with age, and its twigs are smooth, straight and slim. 1993. Images of dogwood anthracnose infections. Species include the common dogwood Cornus sanguinea of Eurasia, the widely cultivated flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) of eastern North America, the Pacific dogwood Cornus nuttallii of western … The various species of dogwood are native throughout much of temperate and boreal Eurasia and North America, with China, Japan, and the southeastern United States being particularly rich in native species. Dogwood Lake is a 3.5-acre waterbody in Trumbull, Connecticut. Mycologia 83(5):633-642. Plant Disease. Regeneration can be eliminated in some areas. 3(2):20-21. Windham. Dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States. Lower branch dieback, a new disease of northern dogwoods. Some, like sericea lespedeza, honeylocust, johnson grass, sumac, dogwood, and eastern red ceder, are present in some areas in large, monotypic stands. Images of dogwood anthracnose symptoms. Emerald Ash Borer. Cornus kousa, C. alternifolia and C. amomum are reported as relatively resistant (Sherald et al., 1994). This species is invasive, but is considered a wetland plant, so it is not counted as invasive in our survey. and M.T. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. It produces an abundant display of yellowish-green flowers in spring and pinkish-red berries in summer. Discula destructiva sp. Annual Review of Photopathology. Anthracnose was monitored on permanent plots in the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) from 1988-1991 (Windham et al. Salogga, D.S., and J.F. This varied group of plants give great garden value. 1983. Ornamentals Northwest Newsletter. An organization’s internal relationships and balance affect how the organization relates to its clients and the external environment. Invasive plants, animals and pests are taking a toll on Wisconsin's lakes, rivers and landscapes. 72:199-203. Other names for this tree include Gray dogwood and panicled dogwood. – roughleaf dogwood Subordinate Taxa. Dogwood anthracnose is a relatively new disease to North America. Plant Disease. Large C. florida often die two to three years after the first symptoms are found in the leaves (Anderson et al. The decline of dogwood populations resulting from dogwood anthracnose has several serious impacts in the Southern Appalachians. Agrilus planipennis. Nov., Cause of Dogwood Anthracnose. Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood) Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) is a small, low-branched tree with spreading horizontal branches. Stems show similar symptoms as seen in Figure 5 with a canker at the base of an epicormic branch and Figure 6 showing conidia (spores) exuded from a dead twig infected with Discula destructiva. FS. Top of page The North American species Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are particularly susceptible. 1996). Website developed by The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the National Park Service in cooperation with the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Invasive Plant Control, Inc., USDA Forest Service, 1994). 1996) Dogwood Anthracnose | National Invasive Species Information Center Discula destructiva. Disease severity within infected areas also has increased rapidly. Hoffard, W.H., D.H. Marx, and H.D. It is native to Eastern North America and is hardy in USDA zones 4 to 8. This specimen is also hearty, in that it perseveres transplantation and responds rather well to pruning. and C.R. Bugwood Wiki. 1996. Results of the 1991 dogwood anthracnose impact assessment and pilot test in the southeastern United States. Ammirati. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Daughtrey, J.L., C.R. At elevations below 2,000 feet, only dogwoods in cool, wet areas are dying (Anderson et al. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Daughtrey, M.L., and C.R. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. Environmental factors influence dogwood’s susceptibility to the disease. Seattle Public Utilities (Washington). that cause anthracnose of ash, oak, and sycamore, Redlin (1991) described and named the pathogen Discula destructiva Redlin in 1991 (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994, Daughtrey et al. The DNR is working with citizens and partners to slow the spread of invasive species. Figures 2-4. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is the species most people think of when the word dogwood is mentioned.Although it is considered one of the favorite trees in the south, there are two other species, kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa) and Cornelian cherry dogwood (Cornus mas), which will grow in all areas of South Carolina except along the coast from Charleston to Savannah, Ga. 1994. Patterns of evolution in Discula fungi and the origin of dogwood anthracnose in North America, studied using arbitrarily amplified and ribosomal DNA. Redlin, S.C. 1991. Center for Integrated Plant Systems. Finding the disease distinct from other Discula spp. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. In 1983, the fungus associated with the anthracnose on C. nuttallii was identified as a species of Discula, and flowering dogwood ( Cornus florida) and Japanese dogwood ( Cornus kousa) were noted as minor hosts (Salogga and Ammirati 1983), but C. Florida is now known as a major host that is impacted by this disease. Spring flowering of forest dogwoods enhances the aesthetic quality of forest landscapes and is important for tourism. 1996). Trees that survive one or more seasons of severe anthracnose usually have swollen areas on trunks and branches where cankers were enveloped by new tissue (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Anthracnose infection of dogwood seedlings exposed to natural inoculum in western North Carolina. Extension Service. Anthracnose infection of dogwood seedlings exposed to natural inoculum in western North Carolina. Mature trees can grow to 10m. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. University of New Hampshire. 1983. 1988. Plant Disease. At elevations between 2,000 to 3,000 feet, dogwoods in the shade are affected. Leaf spots vary according to light exposure. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Current Genetics 39(5-6):346-354. Distinctive white flowers, 3″ in diameter, bloom mid-April to mid-May. Both Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge's wetlands and uplands have been impacted by invasive plant species. Green Gardening Program. Dogwood anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. 8 p. Windham, M.T., M.E. Discula sp. Below 3,000 feet, damage is most severe on moist, cool sites such as northeast-facing slopes (Chellemi et al. Leaf buds are black and look like bristles, forming on short stalks. Apply the mulch of your choice such as bark chips 3 to 4 inches deep over roots to hold in moisture. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Fall color is purplish to red. Their loss could hasten soil acidification, reduce nutrient availability, and influence numerous ecological relationships (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Hibben. The latter two are introduced species that have earned a place in American gardens because they are more disease resistant than native species. University of Massachusetts Extension. 1992. The disease kills dogwoods of all sizes, but it is most severe on young seedlings. By 1995, the disease had been confirmed in northern Georgia (1987), western North Carolina (1988), and as far south as northern Alabama. Dogwood trees are dependent on surface moisture because root networks don't penetrate to water reserves that may lie deeper beneath the slightly acidic well-draining soil they prefer. 1996). Lantana . Brown. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Regional Dogwood Workshop. Drought and winter injury appear to increase susceptibility (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Table 1 identifies a selection of alternative plants, trees and shrubs (categories A to M) that can be used in place of invasive species. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. Overall, vigorous trees tend to be less damaged than weak trees. Plant Disease. Amylostereum complex. 16 of 20. 365 (Abstr.). University of Kentucky. Control and eradication, a primary management goal, is an ongoing challenge. For this reason, ornamentals grown in open, sunny sites are often disfigured without being killed. In 1983, the fungus associated with the anthracnose on C. nuttallii was identified as a species of Discula, and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Japanese dogwood (Cornus kousa) were noted as minor hosts (Salogga and Ammirati 1983), but C. Florida is now known as a major host that is impacted by this disease. Cooperative Extension Service. Phytopathology. Invasive Species. Invasive Listing Sources: Website developed by The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the National Park Service in cooperation with the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England , Invasive Plant Control, Inc. , USDA Forest Service , Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Also known as Chinese dogwood, Korean dogwood, or Japanese dogwood, the Kousa dogwood is a small deciduous tree or multi-stemmed shrub. Daughtrey, M.L., C.R. Britton, and W.T. 1993. These were also the species on which the responsible agent for the disease was discovered in 2003 in a nursery in Lombardy, Italy, and in a private garden in Germany. ), first detected in the Southern Appalachians produced by: USDA, FS forest! 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Most species on this list: Various species of Lantana can be.. The plants Database includes the following 29 species of Lantana can be invasive by the two invasive species Brazilian.

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